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Departments » Health & Human Services-Public Health » Communicable Disease Control
Intestinal Diseases

Campylobacter Infection (Campylobacteriosis)
Campylobacter is a bacterium that infects the intestinal tract either indirectly by swallowing food and water contaminated with it, or directly from the stool of infected people and animals. It takes from 1 to 10 days after exposure for symptoms to occur. Infection often results in diarrhea with abdominal cramping and can lead to dehydration. It is possible to be infected without symptoms.Cryptosporidium Infection (Cryptosporidiosis)
Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes intestinal infection. The stool of an infected person or animal can contaminate water or food. When water or food is ingested, it can cause illness. The major symptoms are watery diarrhea, usually with abdominal cramping. Nausea, vomiting, fever, and loss of appetite may also occur. In rare instances, the parasite may cause inflammation of the gall bladder or cause pneumonia by infecting the lining of the respiratory tract. An infection will usually clear within 2 weeks; however, someone may be completely free of symptoms. Cryptosporidium can be severe or even life threatening for those with a weakened immune system.
E. coli O157:H7 Infection
E. coli O157:H7, a bacterium that infects the intestines, produces a toxin that can also affect other body parts. It is spread through swallowing the bacteria that is found in contaminated food or the stool of an infected person or animal. Outbreaks of this disease can occur. Most often the disease is mild, causing a slight case of diarrhea; however, complications from the illness can be severe.


A giardia infection is caused by a parasite. The parasite is present in the stool of an infected person or animal. It is spread by consuming water or food that has been contaminated by the parasite. Outbreaks of the infection are common in day care and institutional settings, or where hand washing is poor. It develops 3-25 days after exposure.


Norovirus infection, caused by a virus as the name suggests, is frequently referred to as the “stomach flu.” (However, it is unrelated to respiratory influenza.) Symptoms of diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramping are common. It usually lasts for only 1-2 days and comes on suddenly.Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis)
Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease. Illness is caused by ingesting the bacteria from contaminated food or from the stool of infected people or animals. An infected person will become ill 12 to 72 hours later. Symptoms of infection include diarrhea, and abdominal cramping, possibly with vomiting, nausea, fever, and chills. It is possible to be symptom free and yet be infected and able to spread the infection to others.Shigella Infection (Shigellosis)
Shigellosis is a bacterial infection, usually in the intestines, causing diarrhea often with blood and/or mucous and abdominal cramping. It is highly contagious and is spread through the fecal-oral route. Disease is caused by consuming the bacteria that have been shed through the stool of an infected person, or indirectly by swallowing infected food or water. Symptoms begin 1 to 7 days after exposure.
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